Universal Declaration of Human Rights 

Preamble

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,  

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,  

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,  

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,  

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,  

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,  

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,  

Now, therefore,  

The General Assembly,  

Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.  

Article I  

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.  

Article 2  

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.  

Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.  

Article 3  

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.  

Article 4  

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.  

Article 5  

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.  

 Article 6  

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.  

Article 7  

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.  

Article 8  

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.  

Article 9  

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.  

Article 10  

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.  

Article 11  

1. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.  

2. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.  

Article 12  

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.  

Article 13  

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.  

2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.  

Article 14  

1. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.  

2. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.  

Article 15  

1. Everyone has the right to a nationality.  

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.  

Article 16  

 1. Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.  

2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.  

3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.  

Article 17  

1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.  

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.  

Article 18  

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.  

Article 19  

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.  

Article 20  

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.  

2. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.  

Article 21  

1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.  

2. Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.  

3. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.  

Article 22  

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.  

Article 23  

1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.  

2. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.  

3. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.  

4. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.  

Article 24  

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.  

Article 25  

1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.  

2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.  

Article 26  

1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.  

2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.  

3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.  

Article 27  

1. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.  

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.  

Article 28  

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.  

Article 29  

1. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.  

2. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.  

3. These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.  

Article 30  

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Preamble

The States Parties to the present Covenant,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United

Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all

members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of

free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only

be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights,

as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote

universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which

he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights

recognized in the present Covenant,

Agree upon the following articles:

PART I

Article 1

1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine

their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

2. All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources

without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based

upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived

of its own means of subsistence.

3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the

administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the

right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the

Charter of the United Nations.

PART II

Article 2

1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all

individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present

Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political

or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

2. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each State Party to

the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its

constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such laws or

other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the present

Covenant.

3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:

(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall

have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons

acting in an official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined

by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent

authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of

judicial remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.

Article 3

The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and

women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.

Article 4

1 . In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence of which

is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures

derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by

the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their

other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground

of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin.

2. No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 (paragraphs I and 2), 11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made

under this provision.

3. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall

immediately inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant, through the intermediary

of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions from which it has derogated

and of the reasons by which it was actuated. A further communication shall be made, through

the same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates such derogation.

Article 5

1. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or

person any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of

the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is

provided for in the present Covenant.

2. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental human rights

recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions,

regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights

or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.

PART III

Article 6

1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one

shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

2. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of death may be imposed

only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time of the

commission of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant and to the

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty can only

be carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.

3. When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is understood that nothing in

this article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way from

any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and

Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

4. Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of the

sentence. Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in all

cases.

5. Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteen

years of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.

6. Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capital

punishment by any State Party to the present Covenant.

Article 7

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific

experimentation.

Article 8

1. No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall be

prohibited.

2. No one shall be held in servitude.

3.

(a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour;

(b) Paragraph 3 (a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries where imprisonment with hard

labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of hard labour in

pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court;

(c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:

(i) Any work or service, not referred to in subparagraph (b), normally required of a person who

is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court, or of a person during conditional

release from such detention;

(ii) Any service of a military character and, in countries where conscientious objection is

recognized, any national service required by law of conscientious objectors;

(iii) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of

the community;

(iv) Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations.

Article 9

1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall be subjected to

arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and

in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.

2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest

and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.

3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or

other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a

reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be

detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial, at any other

stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.

4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take

proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness

of his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.

5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have an enforceable

right to compensation.

Article 10

1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the

inherent dignity of the human person.

2.

(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted

persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted

persons;

(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible

for adjudication.

3. The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall

be their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults

and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.

Article 11

No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation.

Article 12

1. Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to

liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

2. Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.

3. The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those which are

provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public order (ordre public), public

health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, and are consistent with the other rights

recognized in the present Covenant.

4. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country.

Article 13

An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may be expelled

therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall, except

where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, be allowed to submit the

reasons against his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by, and be represented for the

purpose before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially designated by the

competent authority.

Article 14

1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any

criminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be

entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal

established by law. The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for

reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in a democratic society, or

when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly

necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice

the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall

be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or the

proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.

2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until

proved guilty according to law.

3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the

following minimum guarantees, in full equality: (a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a

language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;

(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate

with counsel of his own choosing;

(c) To be tried without undue delay;

(d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of

his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have

legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice so require, and

without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;

(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and

examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;

(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language

used in court;

(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.

4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age

and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.

5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence being

reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.

6. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and when

subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a

new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice,

the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated

according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact in time is

wholly or partly attributable to him.

7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already

been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each

country.

Article 15

1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which

did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was

committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time

when the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence,

provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty, the offender shall benefit

thereby.

2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or

omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general

principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

Article 16

Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 17

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, or

correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 18

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall

include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either

individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or

belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.

2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a

religion or belief of his choice.

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are

prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the

fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

4. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of

parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral education of

their children in conformity with their own convictions.

Article 19

1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.

2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to

seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally,

in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.

3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special

duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall

only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;

(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or

morals.

Article 20

1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.

2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to

discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

Article 21

The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the

exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are

necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public

order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and

freedoms of others.

Article 22

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to

form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which are

prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national

security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or

the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition

of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the police in their exercise of this

right.

3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International Labour Organisation

Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize

to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to

prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.

Article 23

1. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection

by society and the State.

2. The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be

recognized.

3. No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

4. States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality of

rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. In

the case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary protection of any children.

Article 24

1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion,

national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are

required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.

2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.

3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.

Article 25

Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned

in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:

(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen

representatives;

(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal

suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the

electors;

(c) To have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.

Article 26

All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal

protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to

all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race,

colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth

or other status.

Article 27

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to

such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their

group, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own

language.

PART IV

Article 28

1. There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred to in the present

Covenant as the Committee). It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the

functions hereinafter provided.

2. The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to the present Covenant

who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in the field of human

rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having

legal experience.

3. The members of the Committee shall be elected and shall serve in their personal capacity.

Article 29

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons

possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated for the purpose by the

States Parties to the present Covenant.

2. Each State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not more than two persons. These

persons shall be nationals of the nominating State.

3. A person shall be eligible for renomination.

Article 30

1. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force

of the present Covenant.

2. At least four months before the date of each election to the Committee, other than an

election to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 34, the Secretary-General of the

United Nations shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to the present Covenant to

submit their nominations for membership of the Committee within three months.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all the

persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated them,

and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant no later than one month before

the date of each election.

4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of the States Parties to

the present Covenant convened by the Secretary General of the United Nations at the

Headquarters of the United Nations. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties

to the present Covenant shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall

be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the

votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

Article 31

1. The Committee may not include more than one national of the same State.

2. In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be given to equitable geographical

distribution of membership and to the representation of the different forms of civilization and of

the principal legal systems.

Article 32

1. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be

eligible for re-election if renominated. However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the

first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names

of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting referred to in

article 30, paragraph 4.

2. Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance with the preceding articles of this

part of the present Covenant.

Article 33

1. If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member of the Committee has ceased

to carry out his functions for any cause other than absence of a temporary character, the

Chairman of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall

then declare the seat of that member to be vacant.

2. In the event of the death or the resignation of a member of the Committee, the Chairman

shall immediately notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall declare the seat

vacant from the date of death or the date on which the resignation takes effect.

Article 34

1. When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and if the term of office of the

member to be replaced does not expire within six months of the declaration of the vacancy, the

Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of the States Parties to the present

Covenant, which may within two months submit nominations in accordance with article 29 for

the purpose of filling the vacancy.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of the

persons thus nominated and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant. The

election to fill the vacancy shall then take place in accordance with the relevant provisions of

this part of the present Covenant.

3. A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 33

shall hold office for the remainder of the term of the member who vacated the seat on the

Committee under the provisions of that article.

Article 35

The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General Assembly of the United

Nations, receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the

General Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance of the Committee's

responsibilities.

Article 36

The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for

the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Covenant.

Article 37

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial meeting of the

Committee at the Headquarters of the United Nations.

2. After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such times as shall be provided in its

rules of procedure.

3. The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the

United Nations Office at Geneva.

Article 38

Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his duties, make a solemn declaration in

open committee that he will perform his functions impartially and conscientiously.

Article 39

1. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. They may be re-elected.

2. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these rules shall provide, inter

alia, that:

(a) Twelve members shall constitute a quorum;

(b) Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the members present.

Article 40

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to submit reports on the measures

they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made

in the enjoyment of those rights: (a) Within one year of the entry into force of the present

Covenant for the States Parties concerned;

(b) Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.

2. All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall

transmit them to the Committee for consideration. Reports shall indicate the factors and

difficulties, if any, affecting the implementation of the present Covenant.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after consultation with the Committee,

transmit to the specialized agencies concerned copies of such parts of the reports as may fall

within their field of competence.

4. The Committee shall study the reports submitted by the States Parties to the present

Covenant. It shall transmit its reports, and such general comments as it may consider

appropriate, to the States Parties. The Committee may also transmit to the Economic and Social

Council these comments along with the copies of the reports it has received from States Parties

to the present Covenant.

5. The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to the Committee observations on

any comments that may be made in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.

Article 41

1. A State Party to the present Covenant may at any time declare under this article that it

recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications to the

effect that a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the

present Covenant. Communications under this article may be received and considered only if

submitted by a State Party which has made a declaration recognizing in regard to itself the

competence of the Committee. No communication shall be received by the Committee if it

concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration. Communications received under

this article shall be dealt with in accordance with the following procedure:

(a) If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that another State Party is not giving

effect to the provisions of the present Covenant, it may, by written communication, bring the

matter to the attention of that State Party. Within three months after the receipt of the

communication the receiving State shall afford the State which sent the communication an

explanation, or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter which should include, to the

extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken, pending,

or available in the matter;

(b) If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties concerned within six

months after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State shall

have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to

the other State;

(c) The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it has ascertained that all

available domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with

the generally recognized principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where the

application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged;

(d) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under this

article;

(e) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c), the Committee shall make available its good

offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the

basis of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the present

Covenant;

(f) In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned,

referred to in subparagraph (b), to supply any relevant information;

(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b), shall have the right to be

represented when the matter is being considered in the Committee and to make submissions

orally and/or in writing;

(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice under

subparagraph (b), submit a report:

(i) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is reached, the Committee shall confine its

report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;

(ii) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is not reached, the Committee shall

confine its report to a brief statement of the facts; the written submissions and record of the

oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall be attached to the report. In every

matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties concerned.

2. The provisions of this article shall come into force when ten States Parties to the present

Covenant have made declarations under paragraph I of this article. Such declarations shall be

deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall

transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time

by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration

of any matter which is the subject of a communication already transmitted under this article; no

further communication by any State Party shall be received after the notification of withdrawal

of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party concerned

has made a new declaration.

Article 42

1.

(a) If a matter referred to the Committee in accordance with article 41 is not resolved to the

satisfaction of the States Parties concerned, the Committee may, with the prior consent of the

States Parties concerned, appoint an ad hoc Conciliation Commission (hereinafter referred to as

the Commission). The good offices of the Commission shall be made available to the States

Parties concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the matter on the basis of respect for

the present Covenant;

(b) The Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable to the States Parties concerned. If

the States Parties concerned fail to reach agreement within three months on all or part of the

composition of the Commission, the members of the Commission concerning whom no

agreement has been reached shall be elected by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority vote of

the Committee from among its members.

2. The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity. They shall not be

nationals of the States Parties concerned, or of a State not Party to the present Covenant, or of

a State Party which has not made a declaration under article 41.

3. The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its own rules of procedure.

4. The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at the Headquarters of the United

Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva. However, they may be held at such other

convenient places as the Commission may determine in consultation with the Secretary-General

of the United Nations and the States Parties concerned.

5. The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36 shall also service the commissions

appointed under this article.

6. The information received and collated by the Committee shall be made available to the

Commission and the Commission may call upon the States Parties concerned to supply any

other relevant information.

7. When the Commission has fully considered the matter, but in any event not later than twelve

months after having been seized of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman of the

Committee a report for communication to the States Parties concerned:

(a) If the Commission is unable to complete its consideration of the matter within twelve

months, it shall confine its report to a brief statement of the status of its consideration of the

matter;

(b) If an amicable solution to the matter on tie basis of respect for human rights as recognized

in the present Covenant is reached, the Commission shall confine its report to a brief statement

of the facts and of the solution reached;

(c) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (b) is not reached, the Commission's report

shall embody its findings on all questions of fact relevant to the issues between the States

Parties concerned, and its views on the possibilities of an amicable solution of the matter. This

report shall also contain the written submissions and a record of the oral submissions made by

the States Parties concerned;

(d) If the Commission's report is submitted under subparagraph (c), the States Parties

concerned shall, within three months of the receipt of the report, notify the Chairman of the

Committee whether or not they accept the contents of the report of the Commission.

8. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the responsibilities of the Committee

under article 41.

9. The States Parties concerned shall share equally all the expenses of the members of the

Commission in accordance with estimates to be provided by the Secretary-General of the United

Nations.

10. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be empowered to pay the expenses of the

members of the Commission, if necessary, before reimbursement by the States Parties

concerned, in accordance with paragraph 9 of this article.

Article 43

The members of the Committee, and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions which may be

appointed under article 42, shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts

on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the

Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.

Article 44

The provisions for the implementation of the present Covenant shall apply without prejudice to

the procedures prescribed in the field of human rights by or under the constituent instruments

and the conventions of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies and shall not prevent

the States Parties to the present Covenant from having recourse to other procedures for settling

a dispute in accordance with general or special international agreements in force between them.

Article 45

The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the United Nations, through the

Economic and Social Council, an annual report on its activities.

PART V

Article 46

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of the Charter

of the United Nations and of the constitutions of the specialized agencies which define the

respective responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized

agencies in regard to the matters dealt with in the present Covenant.

Article 47

Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the inherent right of all

peoples to enjoy and utilize fully and freely their natural wealth and resources.

PART VI

Article 48

1. The present Covenant is open for signature by any State Member of the United Nations or

member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of the International

Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the

United Nations to become a Party to the present Covenant.

2. The present Covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited

with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

3. The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State referred to in paragraph 1 of

this article.

4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-

General of the United Nations.

5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States which have signed this

Covenant or acceded to it of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 49

1. The present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the deposit with

the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or

instrument of accession.

2. For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to it after the deposit of the thirtyfifth

instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the present Covenant shall enter into

force three months after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or

instrument of accession.

Article 50

The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal States without any

limitations or exceptions.

Article 51

1. Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and file it with the

Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall

thereupon communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present

Covenant with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States Parties

for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that at least one

third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the

conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of

the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General

Assembly of the United Nations for approval.

2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the General Assembly

of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties to the present

Covenant in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. 3. When amendments

come into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted them, other

States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Covenant and any earlier

amendment which they have accepted.

Article 52

1. Irrespective of the notifications made under article 48, paragraph 5, the Secretary-General of

the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in paragraph I of the same article of the

following particulars:

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 48;

(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant under article 49 and the date of the

entry into force of any amendments under article 51.

Article 53

1. The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are

equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of the present

Covenant to all States referred to in article 48.